“a culture—that is, a complex of stories, institutions, and artifacts—that both leads to and emerges from the growth of cities (civilization, see civil : from civis, meaning citizen, from Latin civitatis, meaning city-state).”
His definition of cities:
“so as to distinguish them from camps, villages, and so on—as people living more or less permanently in one place in densities high enough to require the routine importation of food and other necessities of life.”
Implicit in these definitions is the answer to the question: Is civilization sustainable? The answer is no.
It may sound strange to think about an alternative to civilization since we tend to associate civilization with progress, health, sophistication, and many other good things. Some argue that civilization, itself, as a way of organizing people, is unethical in addition to being unsustainable (see this article for why our current civilization is the largest, most unethical failure in human history). The following patterns emerge from civilizations:
When you think of the plains and hillsides of Iraq, is the first thing that you think of normally cedar forests so thick that sunlight never touches the ground? That’s how they were.
The first written myth of this culture is Gilgamesh going in and deforesting those hills to make cities. When you think of the Arabian peninsula, is the first thing that you think of oak savannah? That’s what it used to be. Let’s move a little bit west, and you get the cedars of Lebanon. They still have one on their flag. Greece was heavily forested. Plato commented on how deforestation was destroying the water quality in Greece. And I’m sure that those in power said, Well, we need to study it a little bit longer first, to make sure there’s a connection. Italy was heavily forested, North Africa was heavily forested. The forests of North Africa went down to make the Egyptian and Phoenician navies.
The story of any civilization is the story of the rise of city-states, which means it is the story of the funneling of resources toward these centers (in order to sustain them and cause them to grow), which means it is the story of an increasing region of unsustainability surrounded by an increasingly exploited countryside.
Because of issues like these, organizations, like Deep Green Resistance, are interested in building alternatives to civilization, capitalism, and patriarchy as a necessary condition for a just and sustainable world.
That said, the only ways of living that have ever been sustainable have been those that have been local and that have emerged from the land where they live. In other words, a social structure that might serve a people well in the deserts of what is now Arizona might not serve people well in the temperate rain forests of the Pacific Northwest. Here, life revolved around salmon. There are no salmon in the deserts of the Southwest. So what we want is for 10,000 cultures to emerge from their own landbases.
Carrying capacity of the planet and population:
notice the language: overpopulation, zero population growth. How different would our discourse be if we spoke instead of overconsumption and zero consumption growth? This shift in discourse won’t happen, of course, because zero consumption growth would destroy the capitalist economy.
Food is central to civilization, a way of life integral to cities and specialization. Civilization necessitates empire. Empire is oppressive and unsustainable. Thus, civilization is unsustainable. Put another way, civilizations end — that is the norm, not the exception.
How Long Do Civilizations Last?
This is an interesting article on how long civilizations last. This author has some inaccuracies (which have been corrected in the data below), but we owe him a debt of gratitude for assembling the data on 68 ancient civilizations that existed all over the world between 3000 BC and 0 BC. First, some summary statistics.
And now the data with no comments about nuance or complications here (but with corrected duration calculations):
|552||Egypt’s Old Kingdom|
|400||Egypt’s Middle Kingdom|
|108||Egypt’s New Kingdom|
|400||Kerma Civilization (Sudan)|
|210||Kushite Kingdom, Early Kingdom (Sudan)|
|940||Kushite Kingdom, Late Kingdom (Sudan)|
|1100||Aksumite Empire (Ethiopia)|
|187||Akkadian Empire (Sumer)|
|46||Third Dynasty of Ur (Sumer)|
|299||First Babylonian Dynasty|
|241||Early Assyrian Empire|
|313||Middle Assyrian Empire|
|87||Chaldean Dynasty (Babylon)|
|250||Old Empire Hittites|
|800||Harappan Civilization (Indus Valley Civilization)|
|1000||Vedic Civilization (India)|
|364||Magadha Empire (India)|
|100||Nanda Empire (India)|
|137||Maurya Empire (India)|
|500||First Chera Empire (India)|
|112||Sunga Empire (India)|
|45||Kanva Dynasty (India)|
|430||Satavahana Dynasty (India)|
|157||Awan Dynasty – Elam Civilization (Iran)|
|210||Eparti Dynasty – Elam Civilization (Iran)|
|342||Middle Elamite Period – Elam Civilization (Iran)|
|203||Neo-Elamite Period – Elam Civilization (Iran)|
|66||Medean Empire (Iran)|
|220||Achaemenid Empire (Iran)|
|249||Seleucid Empire (Iran)|
|469||Parthian Empire (Iran)|
|500||Xia Dynasty (China)|
|478||Shang Dynasty (China)|
|351||Western Zhou period – Zhou Dynasty (China)|
|330||1st half of Eastern Zhou Period – Zhou Dynasty (China)|
|14||Last half of Eastern Zhou period – Zhou Dynasty (China)|
|215||Western period – Han Dynasty (China)|
|195||Eastern Han Dynasty (China)|
|500||Protopalatial Period – Minoan Civilization (Greece)|
|250||Neopalatial Period – Minoan Civilization (Greece)|
|453||Classical Greek Civilization|
|177||Hellenistic Civilization (Greece)|
|243||Ancient Rome (Italy)|
|466||Roman Republic (Italy)|
|520||Roman Empire (Italy)|
|684||Orontid Dynasty (Armenia)|
|442||Kingdom of Armenia|
|661||Phoenicians (Middle East)|
|298||Kingdom of Israel and Judah|
|800||Scythians (Central Asia/Eastern Europe)|
|184||Xiongnu Empire (Mongolia)|
|725||Three Kingdoms of Korea|
|827||Norte Chico Civilization (Peru)|
|700||Chavin Culture (Peru)|
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